The integration of indigenous or local knowledge in the management of biological diversity is not incompatible with the improvement of livelihoods. Around Kisangani, within a radius of approximately 50 km of five main roads, indigenous local customs revealed that prior to the years 1996, the exploitation of natural resources (fishery resources, wildlife, non-timber forest products) was subject to the local calendar. The harvesting of caterpillars was possible without the felling of the trees, the fallows reached up to 15 years, the prohibitions on certain sacred natural resources (sites, trees and totemic animals), including the fish was respected.
In this context of cultural homogeneity, the members of the communities respected this knowledge, as any contravention was accompanied by sanctions. However, the indigenous knowledge about conservation has been hampered by the cultural heterogeneity, including Christianity and Islam and the different migrant groupings.
The strict application of these indigenous knowledge is no longer realistic but ignoring them is also not beneficial. The possibility of considering them because of their positive values and conservation strategies can be exploited. The local extension and promotion of these actions are able to slow down the destruction of biological diversity, without hampering the livelihoods.