The dismembered Oriental Province has a significant potential in natural resources whose management, exploitation and commercialization are confronted with many déﬁs. This study addresses the issue of management of renewable and non-renewable natural resources in the former Province Orientale using a methodology involving documentation, semi-structured interviews, interviews with resource persons and disengaged direct observation. As the natural resources exploited in this part of the Republic are numerous, the study focused only on minerals (mainly gold and diamonds), forest products (wood and non-wood) and agricultural land. The main findings show that the management, exploitation and commercialization of natural resources in this province contribute little to socio-economic development because they foster the entrenchment of mass poverty, low revenue mobilization ﬁscales, conﬂits and land tenure and the activism of armed groups. Moreover, the exploitation of these resources takes place in an environment conﬂictuel where local, national, regional and even international interests are difficult to reconcile. Improving the framework of their governance is necessary to guarantee ecologically sustainable, economically profitable and socially acceptable management.